Some students aim at performance goals, while others strive toward learning goals. In the first case, you're working to validate your ability. In the second, you're working to acquire new knowledge or skills. People with performance goals unconsciously limit their potential. If your focus is on validating or showing off your ability, you pick challenges you're confident you can meet. You want to look smart, so you do the same stunt over and over again. But if your goal is to increase your ability, you pick ever-increasing challenges, and you interpret setbacks as useful information helps you to sharpen your focus, get more creative and work hard.
More than IQ, it's discipline, grit, and a growth mindset that imbue a person with a sense of possibility and the creativity and persistence needed for higher learning and success. Study skills and learning skills are inert until they're powered by an active ingredient the active ingredient is the simple but nonetheless profound realization the power to increase your abilities lies largely within your own control.
Peter C. Brown and Henry L. Roediger III, Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning